رونق تولید ملی | دوشنبه، ۲۹ مهر ۱۳۹۸

مینیاتور - نمایش محتوای تولیدات ویژه

 

 

مینیاتور

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نقاشي يا نگارگري ايراني که مينياتور نيز خوانده مي‌شود شامل آثاري از دوره‌هاي مختلف تاريخ اسلامي ايران است که بيشتر به صورت مصورسازي کتب ادبي(ورقه و گلشاه، کليله و دمنه، سمک عيار، و...)، علمي و فني (الترياق، الادويه المفرده، الاغاني، و...)، تاريخي(جامع التواريخ، و...)، و همچنين، برخي کتب مذهبي، همچون، خاوران نامه مي‌باشد. مکاتب به منظور درک و توضيح بهتر تأثير و تأثرات نگارگري ايراني آن را در دوره‌هاي مختلف حکومتي سلسله‌هاي ايراني و يا پايتخت‌هاي همين حکومت‌ها، همچون مکتب سلجوقي، عباسي، شيراز، تبريز، يا براي مثال، هرات دسته‌بندي مي‌کنند. مکتب تبريز يکي از مکاتب نگارگري ايران به‌نام «مکتب تبريز» در شهر تبريز، در دوره? ايلخانان، جلايريان، ترکمانان قراقوينلو و آق‌قوينلو و صفويان شکل گرفت. نمونه‌هايي از آثار مکتب نگارگري تبريز از قرن چهاردهم ميلادي: مکتب تبريز اول اولين مکتب نگارگري ايراني در تبريز پايه ريزي شده‌است، که به همين دليل آن را مکتب تبريز ? ناميده‌اند. در دوران صفوي و بازگشت تختگاه به تبريز مکتب ديگري در نگارگري با نام تبريز ? شکل مي‌گيرد. همچنين براي اولين بار در تاريخ ايران مصور سازي کتب به شکل کارگاهي و در مجموعه‌اي به نام ربع رشيدي که به همت خواجه رشد الدين فضل‌الله بنا شده بود به انجام مي‌رسيد.


A Persian miniature is a small painting on paper, whether a book illustration or a separate work of art intended to be kept in an album of such works called a muraqqa. The techniques are broadly comparable to the Western and Byzantine traditions of miniatures in illuminated manuscripts. Although there is an equally well-established Persian tradition of wall-painting, the survival rate and state of preservation of miniatures is better, and miniatures are much the best-known form of Persian painting in the West, and many of the most important examples are in Western, or Turkish, museums. Miniature painting became a significant Persian genre in the 13th century, receiving Chinese influence after the Mongol conquests, and the highest point in the tradition was reached in the 15th and 16th centuries. The tradition continued, under some Western influence, after this, and has many modern exponents. The Persian miniature was the dominant influence on other Islamic miniature traditions, principally the Ottoman miniature in Turkey, and the Mughal miniature in the Indian sub-continent.

Persian art under Islam had never completely forbidden the human figure, and in the miniature tradition the depiction of figures, often in large numbers, is central. This was partly because the miniature is a private form, kept in a book or album and only shown to those the owner chooses. It was therefore possible to be more free than in wall paintings or other works seen by a wider audience. The Qu'ran and other purely religious works are not known to have been illustrated in this way, though histories and other works of literature may include religiously related scenes, including those depicting the Prophet Muhammed, after 1500 usually without showing his face. As well as the figurative scenes in miniatures, which this article concentrates on, there was a parallel style of non-figurative ornamental decoration which was found in borders and panels in miniature pages, and spaces at the start or end of a work or section, and often in whole pages acting as frontispieces. In Islamic art this is referred to as "illumination", and manuscripts of the Qu'ran and other religious books often included considerable number of illuminated pages. The designs reflected contemporary work in other media, in later periods being especially close to book-covers and Persian carpets, and it is thought that many carpet designs were created by court artists and sent to the workshops in the provinces