رامسر - نمایش محتوای تولیدات ویژه
رامسر در منتهی الیه غرب استان قرار دارد و از شمال با دریای مازندران ، از جنوب با ارتفاعات البرز میانی ( استان قزوین ) از غرب با شهرستان رودسر (گیلان ) و از شرق با شهرستان تنکابن همسایه است . جمعیت این شهرستان طبـق آمار سرشــماری ســال 1375 حدود 64 هزار نفر بوده است طبق آخرین تقسیمات کشوری رامسر از یک بخش و چهار دهستان و دو شهر تشکیل شده است . منطقه ی رامســر بیـش از ده قــرن آباد بوده اسـت و خانــدان های بزرگـی در آن زیسته اند که بیشتر آنها از سادات می باشند . قدیمی ترین اسم آن در تاریــخ رویان و مازندران ذکر شده است با سخت سر می باشد . مسجد آدینه با بیش از 700 سال قدمت و بقعه ی آقا سیدابوالحسن از بناهای مذهبی ، تاریخی این شهرستان است . وجود مناظر طبیعی زیبا ، مجاورت بـا دریا ، کـوه و جنگل ، آبهای معدنی ، باغهای مرکبات و فرودگاه ، نقش مهمی در جـذب جهانگرد داشته و درآمد سرشاری را عاید مردم این منطقه کرده است . از مهم ترین جاذبه های تاریخی و فرهنگی آن می توان به این موارد اشاره کرد : قلعه ی مارکوه ، هتل قدیم و کاخ رامسر ، مناطق کوهستانی جواهر ده و جنت رودبار و آبگرم معدنی گوگردی رامسر ، کتالم و سادات محله .مهم ترین محصولات کشاورزی این منطقه مرکبات برنج و چای می باشد .
Ramsar (Persian: رامسر, also Romanized as Rāmsar and Rānsar; formerly, Sakht Sar) is a city in and the capital of Ramsar County, Mazandaran Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 31,659, in 9,421 families.
Ramsar lies on the coast of the Caspian Sea. It was also known as Sakhtsar in the past. Natives of Ramsar speak the Gilaki language which is a member of Northwest-Iranian languages. The town is known for having the highest levels of natural background radiation on Earth
Ramsar is the westernmost county and city in Mazandaran. It borders the Caspian Sea to the north, Gilan province to the west, Qazvin Province to the south, and Tonekabon to the east.
Ramsar is a popular sea resort for Iranian tourists. The town also offers hot springs, the green forests of the Alborz Mountains, the vacation palace of the last Shah, and the Hotel Ramsar. Twenty-seven kilometres south of Ramsar and 2700 meters above sea level in the Alborz mountains is Javaher Deh village, which is an important tourist attraction in Ramsar county.
The Convention on Wetlands, signed in Ramsar, Iran, in 1971, is an intergovernmental treaty which provides the framework for national action and international cooperation for the conservation and wise use of wetlands and their resources. There are presently 160 Contracting Parties to the Convention, with 1920 wetland sites, totaling 1,680,000 square kilometres, designated for inclusion in the Ramsar List of Wetlands of International Importance. Presently, there are 160 contracting parties, up from 119 in 2000 and from 18 initial signatory nations in 1971. Signatories meet every three years as the Conference of the Contracting Parties (COP), the first held in Cagliari, Italy in 1980. Amendments to the original convention have been agreed to in Paris (in 1982) and Regina (in 1987)
Ramsar's Talesh Mahalleh district is the most radioactive inhabited area known in the world, due to nearby hot springs and building materials originating from them. A combined population of 2000 residents from this district and other high radiation neighbourhoods receive an average radiation dose of 10 mGy per year, ten times more than the ICRP recommended limit for exposure to the public from artificial sources. Record levels were found in a house where the effective radiation dose due to external radiation was 131 mSv/a, and the committed dose from radon was 72 mSv/a. This unique case is over 80 times higher than the world average background radiation.
The prevailing model of radiation-induced cancer posits that the risk rises linearly with dose at a rate of 5% per Sv. If this linear no-threshold model is correct, it should be possible to observe an increased incidence of cancer in Ramsar through careful long-term studies currently underway. Early anecdotal evidence from local doctors and preliminary cytogenetic studies suggested that there may be no such harmful effect, and possibly even a radioadaptive effect. More recent epidemiological data show a slightly reduced lung cancer rate and non-significantly elevated morbidity, but the small size of the population (only 1800 inhabitants in the high-background areas) will require a longer monitoring period to draw definitive conclusions. Furthermore, there are questions regarding possible non-cancer effects of the radiation background. An Iranian study has shown that people in the area have a significantly higher expression of CD69 gene and also a higher incidence of stable and unstable chromosomal aberrations. Chromosomal aberrations have been found in other studies and a possible elevation of female infertility has been reported.
Radiation hormesis was not observed in a study that also recommended that Ramsar does not provide justification to relax existing regulatory dose limits. Pending further study, the potential health risks have moved scientists to call for relocation of the residents and regulatory control of new construction.
The radioactivity is due to the local geology. Underground water dissolves radium in uraniferous igneous rock and carries it to the surface through at least nine known hot springs. These are used as spas by locals and tourists. Some of the radium precipitates into travertine, a form of limestone, and the rest diffuses into the soil, where it is absorbed by crops and mixes with drinking water. Residents have unknowingly used the radioactive limestone as a building material for their homes. The stone irradiates the inhabitants and generates radon gas which promotes lung cancer. Crops contribute 72 µSv/yr to a critical group of 50 residents